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A flat enterprise campus network is where all end devices (PCs, servers, printers …) are connected to each other using Layer 2 switches. A flat network does not use subnets for any design purposes. Layer 2 devices in a flat network provide little opportunity to control broadcasts or to filter undesirable traffic. As more devices and applications are added to a flat network, response times degrade until the network becomes unusable.
To address the limitations of the flat network and the sizing needs of most campus networks, a hierarchical model is used. A typical enterprise hierarchical LAN campus network design includes the following three layers:
The benefit of dividing a flat network into smaller, more manageable blocks is that local traffic remains local. Only traffic that is destined for other networks is moved to a higher layer.
Functions at the access layer include:
Functions at the distribution layer include:
Functions at the core layer include:
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